AP World History

April 17th, 2009

Welcome to AP World History!

Saint Francis of Assisi

October 14th, 2010

saint francis

October 27, 1192

Earlier today, I did something that even I had never imagined I would do.  I recently came across a beggar in the streets.  He attempted to barter with me, but we could come to no conclusion.  He left me, and the most peculiar feeling came upon me at that moment.  I felt the need to chase after him, and supply him with everything in my pockets and garments.  It felt so good to give a poor man some form of hope.  Unfortunately, most of my friends mocked me for my doings, for reasons I do not know.  Even my own father, who baptized me in the name of Saint John the Baptist, punished me for abandoning my wares.  Why would the ones close to me scold me for such charitableness?

June 4, 1204

Finally, I have my life back.  I had been taken captive on an expedition to Perugia, in a place called Callestrada for nearly a year and a half.  During my time, alone and helpless, My lord has come closer to me than ever before.  My faith in him is strengthening.

March 26, 1209

Ever since witnessing that life-changing sermon many months ago about being giving forth the name of God, no matter what the cost, I have gathered eleven members in an attempt to form a religious facility entitled the “Friars Minor.”  I have just received word from Pope Innocent III that my new religious order has been accepted.  Finally, I can more easily teach people of the love of God.  Regrettably, I did have to give up all of my possessions, even ones bound to me by blood, such as my family.  Why they would ridicule and beat me for doing things such as this is something I never want to know.

March 28, 1211

I have just received a wonderful woman named Clare to myself.  We hope to eventually create a group called “Order of the Poor Ladies.”  I hope that eventually this order will be able to reach out to many women and spread the word of God.

February 17, 1219

I have recently returned from a very interesting pilgrimage to Egypt.  While there, spreading the love of Christ, I happened to come across a sultan, along with his crusaders of Damietta.  I challenged them to a test of their religion by asking them to walk into a blazing fire and come out un-scathed, in order to prove if their Muslim God was truly God.  While they did not accept, I offered to do it myself.  They were so incredibly dazzled by my actions that they listened very intently to my teachings.  I can only hope that they have received my message and taken it to their hearts after my sermon.  Muslims have proven to be very difficult to convert in these past few years.

April 22, 1220

I am so very excited at the moment!  In the town of Greccio, near my home of Assisi, I am planning to celebrate the birth of Jesus in a way never thought of before!  I plan to complete a fully “three-dimensional” nativity scene, in honor of Christmas.  I plan to use real animals, along with many other sense-enlightening objects in my project.  I feel it will move many people who come to witness it.

October 1, 1226

I’ve come down with a terrible disease in my eye, and it is slowly eating away at the rest of my mortal body.  I am truly thinking that this may be end for me very soon.  I have been dictating my spiritual strength for the past few days, and I am hoping that the lord has been pleased by my doings on this planet.  I may have lived a short life, but I feel I have fulfilled my duty here.

st_francis 2


October 13th, 2010

It has been 3 years since Paul had asked me to supervise the construction of St. Peter’s.  i have sent a letter to the bishop of Cecena telling of my troubles.

Monsignor , I’m entrusting myself to your Lordship and I pray you to help me and give me some advice, as His Grace has done many times, even if I was not worthy of it. After Paul died, some soldiers remained there to protect and to watch over the materials for the architecture and the construction of St. Peter’s, risking their lives, without any salary for three months; as they are needy, they made me understand that, if I do not pay them, they shall abandon the construction of St. Peter’s and this would cause damages worth thousands of scudi. I don’t have any money for them and I don’t want this scandal to happen, so I’m begging your Lordship, for St. Peter’s sake, to advice me and to forgive me for my excessive presumptuousness. Your servant Michelangelo


I have met my muse, my Ganymede. I am now, forevermore, an armed Knight’s captive and slave confessed (XXXI) . These words shall be my title I am no longer Michelagniolo the artist, I am Michelagniolo the page. My humility overwhelms me and I will forever be exposed, in the presence of God, on the Last Judgment gripped in Saint Bartholomew’s hand. My expression will outreach Biago’s hand and he and his demons shall be there to witness it, for I am the world corrupt and doomed to my fate for my idolatrous ways.

Why should I seek to ease intense desire?

With still more tears and windy words of grief,
When heaven, or late or soon, sends no relief
To souls whom love hath robed around with fire.

Why need my aching heart to death aspire,
When all must die? Nay death beyond belief
Unto these eyes would be both sweet and brief,
Since in my sum of woes all joys expirel

Therefore because I cannot shun the blow
I rather seek, say who must rule my breast,
Gliding between her gladness and her woe?
If only chains and bands can make me blest,
No marvel if alone and bare I go
An armed Knight’s cantive and slave confessed

This poem to my dear Knight, When first Love sent our souls from God above, he fashioned me to see thee as thou art- Pure light; and thus I find God’s counterpart (Xxviii). Thus, doomed form birth


My Journey to India

October 13th, 2010

My journey began in Portugal, the country I was born in. It all began last year in July 1497. Because they knew how great of a warrior I was, the great Vasco da Gama, they appointed me to lead their voyage to India. About four months into the trip, we reached a bay.

November 7th 1497

It was a very nice place with nice weather and great temperature, which made the crops and food the best quality. We decided to name it the bay of Santa Helena. As we spent the next eight days here, we observed many unique things about the mysterious country. They relied on animals from the sea for their foods and many animals we encountered were closely related to the ones from Portugal.

Days later people from the country came to our ship. We exchanged our goods with them; they gave us shells from the ocean and we made good use out of them. Copper was of high value to those people also. After having these interactions with the people, we were even more curious. The captain decided to find out more about their lives and what they liked. They were very peaceful people, especially the men.

It wasn’t until mid November when we set sail to go to Cape of Good Hope. We were confused about the location for a while. The monsoon winds were not cooperating so we were sailed back and forth. Probably about a week later we got there.

May 20th 1498

Today was the day! O ur ship landed in the good old city of Calicut and another city close by Pandarani. Finally we arrived! The city was full of Christians. They questioned us on why we came to their place and we said to look for Christians and spices. We were amazed and grateful that we would be able to find people that spoke our language of Portuguese!

As we departed, we received the message from the great king of our country arrived at the city and suggested us to move to greater anchor land in Pandarani. We were taken to one of their Christian churches. Of course, we weren’t allowed to step in. Now we were getting closer to the king’s palace. The city was amazing!

The king was very great to us and we appreciated everything. By June, we started returning to our great home of Portugal. What a long journey that was! It was certainly worth it!

William the Conqueror

October 13th, 2010



I have just received word that my father has been killed while returning from the holy land. I am now the Duke of Normandy at the age of seven. My tutors say that I will be the greatest leader in Europe; I believe them to be wrong. I have had many assassinations attempts on my life; I believe that the other Norman Lords do not recognize me as a leader. Now I am 18, the other lords have seen fit to rise against me to test my strength. Today I crushed the rebellion and have finally taken control of my country.


I have finally found a bride. Her name is Matilda of Flanders and this marriage will mean the union of our two countries. Over the past few years, I have managed to quell all existing rebellions and become a powerful lord. Once the rebellious lords were dealt with I took their land and gave it to the loyal lords and I now have completely loyal vassals.

1060-1066 (Jan.-July)

I have recently had the King of England claim me to be his heir to the throne and become the next king. This has lightened my spirits and increased my influence in other lands. I have heard word from England that three people claim the crown to England. Myself from a direct vow by King Edward, The English by right of tradition, and the Danish warrior Harold Haarada by marriage. Later I was informed that one of my lords had Harold Godwinson, whom I believed to be carrying a message, in their prison. I had him delivered to me and swear fealty to me for saving his life. After he left for England I realized that he did not give me any message at all. Early this year of 1066, King Edward died from sickness, and Harold Godwinson was crowned king instead of me claiming that the king changed his mind. I have been protesting for many weeks now giving witnesses to the fact that I was the rightful king. I now know that this must be settled by war and not mere lawyers. I have heard reports that Harold Haraada, is creating an army to invade and I must do the same myself. My army will be ready by august and Harold’s by September. I must claim my rightful throne before lesser claims reach the throne first. I will not give up until I have my rightful position as King of England.

Salah-al Din

October 13th, 2010

Salah-al DinStupid fighters

I am an elite Kurdish warrior and I have to put up with stupid Christian warriors. I can’t stand them. They think Jerusalem is their “holy city” and Jesus is the Messiah. Whatever that is. Jesus was just a prophet and Jerusalem belongs to Muslims everywhere. I am the sultan of Turkish Syria. I inherited my power from my uncle Shírkúh. Now that he is dead I will get the help of a Byzantine fleet and conquer many lands and will soon rule over all Christians in Jerusalem and the world over. I am a military legend wherever I go. I am a champion of Islam. Fear me Christians, fear me!!!!!!

Expanding my Reign

I have retained full power in Egypt and I have ended the Fatimite caliphate. Now I shall establish a new dynasty. One that has be revered for generations to come. It shall be called the Ayyubid Dynasty and I shall be its master.Nour-ed-Din has died recently and, while his sons and nephews fight for the inheritance, I shall take possession of Damascus and conquered all Mesopotamia except Mosul. Monsul was never really an attractive place to me. Then I shall unify my Muslim kingdom into one monster of a state with Egypt as my center.

Crushing Christian Scum

I just conquered Damascus, Alleppo, and Iraq, it took me 12 long years but it was worth it. I am currently uniting the efforts of Egypt and Baghdad, and preaching to my Muslim world to rise in a Jihad, a Holy War, a counter crusade, of all the Muslims against the Christians. I have many large forces of Muslim warriors. They are from different groups of Muslims but we all share a common goal. Crush the Christians. The Christians call my warriors Saracens, but soon they will call them master.

Jerusalem is Mine

I recently captures my prized city of Jerusalem. My Saracens and I were able to capitalize on a golden opportunity. When Amalric died in 1173, he left the royal power to Baldwin IV, “the Leprous” the Kingdom of Jerusalem was threatened on all sides. I took full advantage and captured my baby in a mere 3 months. I was not merciful to the Christians because I didn’t want to end up like Igor’ Svjastoslavic, a cousin to the ruler of Kiev, who lead an army against the Polovci.  Igor and the other Russians met the Polovci in battle, and are successful at first, but then they were defeated. I plowed through those Christians like a hot knife through butter. Tonight I shall celebrate with my men and my wife.

My Legacy Shall Live On

During the Third Crusade, the Christians were led by King Richard the Lionhearted. What a fool he was. Mr. Fool gathered supplies and ships to deliver them to his troops. They started to march along the coast, but when the Fool finally marched inland to attack my Jerusalem, he found that the countryside had been stripped of food and wood. I also poisoned the wells. Richard realized that his army would fall apart from starvation if he tried to attack my and my Muslim army. The crusaders had to settle for a treaty with me that guaranteed Christian pilgrims access to the Holy Places. I didn’t want to grant them access to anything, but remember I am a political genius. I feel as though I am about to head off  to meet Allah. I feel that the pope may start a 4th crusade. I know for a fact that my empire will not be shaken by another crusade and will stay intact for many more generations. I just hope my wife Shajara al-Durr, builds me a Mausoleum. She should name it something like the Mausolem of Salih Najm al-Din. It would be perfect if she  attached it to my Madrasa.

Go to    http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.badassoftheweek.com/saladin3.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.badassoftheweek.com/saladin.html&usg=__a-ofiIIgsZ5Gvn9TJIZQmmaMZkY=&h=246&w=350&sz=63&hl=en&start=28&zoom=1&tbnid=qcJ3CVBamAEXkM:&tbnh=134&tbnw=179&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsalah%2Bal-din%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D579%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C923&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=888&ei=Cc61TN3HOoK0lQee6aDyBQ&oei=A861TI-ULMH48Aai2qGXCg&esq=3&page=3&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:28&tx=136&ty=34&biw=1280&bih=579   to see a picture!

Leif Eriksson

October 13th, 2010

The name is Leifur Eiríksson in Icelandic. However, you may just call me Leif Eriksson. If it challenges you that much to spell it that way, then many intelligent scholars have been know to spell it Ericsson, but that is just a minor detail. I have much to tell you about my conversion to Christianity and my eventual exploration expedition.


In my temporary home of Norway, many of the people here are believers in Norse mythology. However, Christianity is beginning to take hold, and I am not quite sure what to do. Should I continue on with the Norse, or shall I convert to a religion where I feel that I can truly trust my life in. What truly is interesting though, is that I am not the only one with the problem. Ingialld, the son of Thorsteinn Highbankawk struggled with the same issues. In the end, I have much reason to believe I will convert in the same fashion as him.

Lets Go!

As I began the preparations for my voyage of exploration, I felt it necessary to include my father, Erik the Red, who was a very accomplished explorer to accompany me on my sea voyages. However, much to my dismay, he replied by stating that he felt as though his age is holding him back and that he would not be able to make the entire round-trip alive. But, I was able to convince my father that he is the only person on earth that would be able to bring me much good luck. An unfortunate event occurred however. As he approached the ship, he fell off of his horse. In pain he exclaimed “It is not designed for me to discover more lands than the one in which we are now living, nor can we now continue longer together.” This indeed was disappointing, but I needed to continue on; his spirit would be with me on my voyage.

One of the Greatest?

When I think back to my old views of Norse Mythology, I think about the story of the three high seats. I realize that you may be able to realize that a farfetched simile is now coming forth so I am prepared to put it out there. I want to be like a high seat king when it comes to exploration. As I think to myself on this long voyage, I feel that I truly do have the ability to become a useful member of society. Sadly, every time I think about this, I get the feeling of loss or defeat in my stomach. Much to my surprise, I found a group of Norseman at sea. I decided to allow them onto my ship and make them a part of the voyage. These actions earned me the nickname Leif the Lucky. This seemed to put off the feelings of emptiness for a while.


Second Place

To me, being an explorer is much more than an occupation. It is something that I truly enjoy doing. If that was not true, I would never put myself through the many treacherous situations that I did. As aforementioned in an earlier post, I had a feeling in my stomach of loss or defeat. I now realize what it is. I, Leif Eriksson was the first European to land on North American soil. To be exact, my landing place was in what I decided to name Vinland, or present day Newfoundland. Much to my misfortune, I was not credited in being the first explorer there. However, I have no say in this, and now the owner of the title to the first European explorer to land in North America is Christopher Columbus.

Ferdinand Magellan

October 13th, 2010

In Search of The Spice Islands

September 20, 1519 7:30 PM


Today, my crew and I finally began the voyage of setting sail to find the Spice Islands. The Spice Islands are said to be part of the Philippines. For this voyage, we plan to do something a little bit differently than other sailors have done in the past. This journey will be circumnavigation; we will be traveling in a complete circle, from Seville Spain, to South America, then the Philippines and back to Spain. We will not travel the same path twice.

It’s been a long two-year span in trying to get this voyage approved by King Charles V. My partners, Juan de Aranda, Rui Faleiro, and I were all very fortunate to have the King approve this voyage in such a timely manner. He also has granted us each five percent of the profits from the travels, more than we ever could have hoped for!

Many people worked hard for months trying to get this all put together. Cartographers and helpers under the King put forth much effort to make this voyage as relaxing as possible. My other captains were assigned crews with carracks, large ships, and I have been assigned to more crew members with a caravel, a smaller ship, that we have decided to name, Trinidad. Together we have four ships, two hundred and thirty-two crewmembers, all from different regions around the world.

We all had quite a scare this morning. Before we left the port out of Seville, Spain, we got word that King Manuel I of Portugal ordered the Navy to stop and make sure that we didn’t continue on with our voyage. Luckily, we made it out of the port in time, and the naval ships were unable to keep up with us. Now we are stopped in Cape Verde for the night and we will plan our voyage of crossing the Atlantic Ocean to South America.


April 2, 1520 1:00 PM


My crew and I awoke to find a mutiny had broken out between the captains of Concepcion and San Antonio who wanted to overthrow the other partner captains, including myself, so that they could take complete charge of the voyage. Unfortunately, these two captains will be unable of continuing on the journey with the rest of the fleet. The crew of every ship has remained loyal to their original captains, and consensus says that these two men, Gaspar Quesada and Juan de Cartagena, are to be dealt with at once. Gaspar will be executed after the evening meal tonight, and Juan will be marooned on the coast before we leave in the morning.


November 1, 1520 9:00 AM

All Saint’s Channel

Today begins the first real struggle as part of this travel to the Spice Islands. The fleet has now come to a point at the end of South America where we need to sail through a thin channel in the Tierra del Fuego. This will certainly not be an easy task, for there may be storms or large rock formations ahead. At dawn, I sent Concepcion and San Antonio through the channel first to explore it and send any word back of whether or not it was safe to travel through. Now, my ship and Gomez’s are waiting to receive word from the other ships. If all goes well, we will be able to leave by noon and make it through the channel by nightfall, and I will have been the first European to successfully sail through the Tierra del Fuego. Keep your fingers crossed for smooth sailing towards the Philippines.


Leonardo da Vinci

October 13th, 2010


August 19, 1496: How amusing life is in Florence Italy. Especially for a painter, there is much to see and much to learn. Even ordinary people are interesting. There have been several occasions when I found someone with particularly interesting hair or something of that sort, and I ended up spending nearly my entire day following that person and observing them, for every good artist knows that you must use every moment of inspiration to your advantage. I do consider myself a decent artist. I have studied under the watch of the knowledgeable Andrea del Verrocchio. Indeed, I have learned a great many skills from him that I still use today, like the delicate way he arranges hair when he draws people. However, I assisted him in a painting of St. John baptizing Christ after studying for awhile. The angel that I drew was so much better than the rest of the painting, that “he swore he would never touch color again.”  Currently I am working on the last supper. It is almost complete, but similarly to most artists, I cannot draw what I Imagine in my head. I feel that the face of Christ especially, is too majestic for my hands to be able to do it justice. If I cannot think of a way to draw it to my satisfaction, I may just leave it unfinished, as I have done with several other works.

March 10,1500: The French king continues to pester me about finishing his cartoon of St, but for the art to be any good, it must come from the heart, and the heart cannot be rushed. At least it will certainly be better than anything Michelangelo could create! To think that he actually thought he deserved that great piece of marble still astounds me. An amateur artist like him getting great material like that would be such a waste. He may have some talent, but it is nothing compared to other artists I have known, including myself. It is partially because of him that I am here in the first place. Because we disagree so much, he finally decided to leave Florence.  With him out of the way, I went to France to talk to the king who adores my work. It is then that insisted that I should color his cartoon of St. Anne.  He must be more understanding of the pace at which I work, however. As I said before, great works of art take time and patience


November 2, 1503: I have started on my knew painting of Lisa del Giocondo that I was commissioned to work on by her husband. I can already feel that it will be a master piece! It is very tedious work however. There are so many fine details that I must pay attention to especially in the eyes and the hair. I am, again, finding it difficult to paint to my satisfaction. The image in my mind is so much better, so much more alive, that it aggravates me not to be able to put it on paper. I have a good feeling about it, however, so we shall see how it turns out.

Bartolomeu Dias

October 13th, 2010

This I tell you, is for the Venetians. I, Bartolomeu Dias, have finally broken the Venetian merchant’s monopoly upon our European people, for I have discovered a trade route from Europe to the Indies. Gone is the need for the Venetian middlemen and their overpriced services for trading with the East! For by navigating the southernmost tip of Africa I have found  the way to India successfully! Though it was a sixteen month voyage and the crew had us return before we quite reached the Indies, I have found the way in this the year of 1488. Thus by traveling the Gold Coast and rounding the Cape of Storms, one will reach the Indian Ocean and be free to trade in India for cinnamon and other spices. Further trips will help establish relations with the fabled Prester John character also, for we did not make it far enough to find him. More expeditions shall entail.

Peace has been reached with the Spaniards! Of course while we, the Portuguese, were the first to open up trade between ourselves and the Indies, the Spaniards were not far behind in their voyages of expedition. We have been destined to be competitive in the discovery of new lands none the less, but today of 1494, on June 7, the King John of Portugal and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile (and their said cities), have signed the Treaty of Tordesillas. By signing this treaty the Spanish have allowed the demarcation line running from pole to pole to be moved 370 leagues to the west of the Cape Verde Islands, allowing us to take anything east of the line and they anything west of it. Originally the line was a mere 100 league west of the islands, as proclaimed by the Bull Inter Caetera, which gave the Spaniards possession of the West Indies which Christopher Columbus found. Columbus, not even being Spanish but Portuguese, proclaimed his findings, and the Spaniards took advantage. This competition will continue yet for some time, let me assure you.

It is the year 1500 and I have been traveling with Pedro Alvares Cabral on a second expedition following that of Vasco de Gama. Following de Gama’s directions and charts, we are to go back to the Indies, however we have made a great discovery before reaching the Indies. It seems that we have travelled too far west and come across and new land that Cabral has named the Island of Vera Cruz. This island is on our side of the Tordesillas Line, and we so claimed it for Portugal immediately. The men of Vera Cruz were quite peculiar to us, with very brown skin and wearing nothing over their bearings as we do in Europe. As of this moment we are continuing our trip as planned, preparing to round the Cape of Good hope (renamed by King John II). We are all excited to return home to Portugal and proclaim our finding.

James Cook

October 13th, 2010

james cook 13/04/1768

Today I received wonderful news! I shall be commanding the ship the Endeavour on trek to the Pacific. Our goal is to reach Tahiti and record the passing of Venus over the sun. This mission is very important seeing, as the next time this shall happen no astronomer from this time will be alive. This journey has a second goal to it also. The King would like us to try to befriend the Natives and learn about their lifestyle. After the passing of Venus, we are supposed to explore the waters for continents or large land areas that are not yet inhabited. On this trip many people will accompany me and aiding me in completing my task, there will be will be more details later of the scientists, botanists, astronomers, accompanying me. Being allowed to command the ship on such an important mission is a huge honor. Only a few short years ago I was at the bottom of the ranks in the navy, a poor orphaned boy. Now I have moved through the ranks, apparently presenting some sort of natural talent, I have passed all of my early friends in rank and skill. I shall try to use my skills in astronomy and cartography on this journey, to prove that I was the right choice to be in command.


I returned from journey upon the Endeavour a week ago. I found it a very successful trip! I was promoted to the status of Captain because of this journey! Meeting the people of Tahiti was a very interesting experience. The natives had a unique way of living and I never felt sure as to how our relations were. Some days they would storm on to our ship, stealing and taking whatever they pleased, then some mornings they would provide us with plenty of coconuts and other such items. The Venus transit was a bit of a letdown. It was nothing magnificent to see and I am afraid my readings varied greatly from a sir Joseph Banks who also measured the transit. All’s well I assume, for I did have another important discovery. My shipmates and I landed upon this large island, by the name of New Zealand. We mapped out the island, explored the strange land, and brought back a large amount of information on it. We also explored the coast of a different very large land mass. I am not sure of the name of this place yet, but I am sure more information will come in the future.


A little over a month has passed since I returned from life upon the Endeavour, just as I was becoming accustomed to walking on land again I was called to the Royal Society. Here they informed they wanted to be sure there was no continent in the southern hemisphere. Therefore, my crew and I shall board a ship named the Resolution and journey with another vessel, the Adventure, and explore the southern half of the globe in search of this mass.


Right now, I am aboard my vessel the Resolution, I just returned from a meeting with the captain of the Adventure. We have decided to part our ways. The Adventure wishes to sail back to England since we have passed over the Antarctic Circle and sailed through the South pacific, my crew still has exploring to do however. We shall cross the Antarctic Circle once again and continue to explore the South Pacific for hopes that we shall find an uncharted island.


I have returned home from journey upon the Resolution, and my! What has changed, I feel as though the colonists and the king have completely changed! When I left on this voyage, there was some murmur from Benjamin Franklin of issues in the Colonies but I thought it was a slight rebellion that would die down in several months. This large war is insanity! I hope that by the time I return home from my next voyage upon the Resolution all of this mess shall be cleared up. On my next voyage, I am supposed to search the Antarctic Circle and explore the continent named Antarctica. I hope this journey proves as insightful as the last. We discovered there is no southern landmass the King was looking for, merely lots of inhabited small islands and Antarctica.